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Parts of the Speech
Below is the Parts of the Speech:
Parts of Speech
The words used in a sentence are divided into different kinds or classes according to the work they do in the sentence. These kinds of classes are called “Parts of Speech”. They are eight in number.
Noun Pronoun Adjective
A noun is a word, we use to name a person, a place, or a thing. For example Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Chair, Lahore, Butter, Etc.
The Noun: Number
There are two numbers in English, the singular and the plural. The singular number denotes one person or thing and the plural number shows more than one person or thing.
(toy – toys), (window – windows), (man stories), (brother-in-law – brothers-in-law), etc. men), (goose – geese), (army armies), (story – stories)
But some nouns are used only in the singular or only in the plural form.
Singular: News, Physics, Mathematics, Innings, etc.
Plural: Mumps, Scissors, Trousers, Tongs, Riches, Drawers, Spectacles, etc.
The Noun: Gender
Gender shows sex differences. It is of four kinds.
A noun that denotes a male person, or animal, etc. is said to be of “Masculine Gender’ e.g. Boy, Lion, Adnan, etc.
A noun that denotes a female is said to be of ‘Feminine Gender’ e.g. girl, lioness, Sara, etc.
A noun that denotes either sex is said to be of ‘Common Gender’ e.g.
A noun that denotes lifeless things is said to be of ‘Neuter Gender’ e.g. apple, book, knife, etc.
Kinds of Noun:
There are five kinds of nouns.
Proper Noun is the name of a particular person, place, or thing e.g. Quran Majeed, Badshahi Mosque, Ali, Dell computers, etc.
The name of a common thing, person, or place is called, ‘Common Noun’ e.g. boys, women, tables, station, bird, etc.
It is the name of some things, persons, etc. who are taken together and are spoken of as a whole e.g. army, team, crowd, police, cattle, fleet, etc.
The name of a quality, action, state, etc. is called ‘Abstract Noun’ e.g. kindness, evil, laughter, sickness, life, etc.
It is the name of such a raw material that is used to produce many other things, e.g, Milk, iron, gold, wood, flour, etc.
The word which is used in place of a noun is called ‘Pronoun”. It is used to avoid the repetition of the noun.
Rahat is a good boy. He respects his elders. All his friends and elders like him.
Here, all underlined words are pronouns, which refer to Rahat.
Kinds of Pronoun:
There are seven kinds of pronouns.
Nominative case Possessive case Objective case My, Mine Our, Ours First Person You no 1 He Second Person Your, Yours Third Person His Him She Her, Hers Her Them Their
All of the above-mentioned pronouns are used to avoid the repetition of nouns.
Relative Pronoun :
A relative pronoun is a word that works as a conjunction as well as a pronoun. Who, whose, whom, which, that are relative pronouns.
He is the young man who saved my life.
Whose book is this?
A demonstrative pronoun refers to that person or thing who has come later. These words are demonstrative pronouns; the same, such, one’s, one, these, those, this, that, etc.
That is the Blue Mosque.
I don’t believe such rubbish.
Both dresses are good, but this is better than that.
- Indefinite Pronòun:
The pronouns, which refer to persons or things in a general way are called, ‘Indefinite Pronouns’. These words are indefinite pronouns; some, a few, much, either, neither, all, one, anybody, everybody, any, none, both, etc.
- A want some bread.
- Here, all are in a bad mood
- I am not going to ask for anybody’s help.
- None of you is truly reliable.
When the action done by the subject reflects the subject again, it is called ‘Reflexive Pronoun’. These words are reflexive pronouns myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, etc.
I love myself.
They love themselves.
He loves himself.
An ‘Interrogative Pronoun’ is used to ask any question. These words are interrogative pronouns. which? who? whom? what? whose? etc.
What is your good name?
Who’s at the door?
Each, either, neither, etc. are called ‘Distributive Pronouns’ as they refer to persons or things present at a time.
- Either of you can leave now.
- Neither of the boys tells a lie.
- Each of the girls sang a song.
An adjective is a word that is used to add meaning to the noun or the pronoun. It describes a person, animal, place, or thing which the noun names or tells. Briefly, it qualifies noun or pronoun.
She is a pretty girl.
He is a lazy boy.
I do not like that family.
The Comparison of Adjectives:
Some adjectives describe the quality of an object in different ways:
- The Positive Degree (He is a rich man)
- The Comparative Degree (He is richer than his brother)
- The Superlative Degree (He is the richest man in the family)
Kinds of Adjective:
The followings are kinds of adjectives:
Adjective of Quality:
This adjective shows the quality of a person or thing.
- Karachi is a large city.
- Fox is a clever animal.
- You are a dishonest person.
Adjective of Quantity:
This adjective shows the quantity of something in the sense of ‘how much’
- He has no sense.
- Ahmed has lost all his wealth.
- There is a little milk in the jug.
Adjective of Number:
This adjective shows that ‘how many’ persons or things are meant. It points out a numerical quantity of something.
- Most of them haven’t shown any interest.
- She has given me many valuables.
- June is the sixth month of the year.
It shows which thing or person is meant.
- That man is fat.
- These apples are not sweet.
- I like such movies.
It shows or refers to each one of a number according to its use.
Every word of this book is true.
Either can do it easily.
Each of them is an eyewitness of it.
When the words e.g. (what, which, whose) are used with nouns to ask questions, they are called, interrogative adjectives.
Whose pen is this?
Which way shall I go?
What hobby do you have?
A verb is a word that tells or says something about a person or thing. we cannot make a sentence without a verb.
- Saba weeps.
- You eat a banana.
- The baby sleeps.,
A verb may refer to:
- Present time
- Past time
- Future time
Kinds of Verb
There are two main kinds of verbs.
- Helping Verb or Auxiliary
- Helping Verb or Auxiliary:
. Helping verbs assist the principal verb in the sentences. Yet they can also stand as the principal verb.
(do, does do, have, has had, is, am, are, was, were, will, shall, can, could, should, would, may, might, ought, must) are helping verbs.
She has gone to school. (helping verb)
She has a school.
The helping verbs (can, could, may, might, will, shall, would, should, ought, must) are also called Modals or Modal verbs because they express mode or manner and give the meanings of; certainty, request, permission, possibility, ability, habit, inability, prohibition or negation.
We should follow the teaching of Islam. (suggestion)
May You live a long life. (prayer)
I can swim across the river. (ability
We shall have a holiday tomorrow. (promise)
Can you lift this box? (ability)
A principal verb is the main verb. According to tense, it has three forms: Present, Past, Past Participle.
There are two kinds of ‘Principal verb’:
- Transitive Verb
- Intransitive Verb
The transitive verb refers to that action that is passed over to an object from the subject.
Salma takes tea. (action is passing over to an object.
Ahmed says a prayer. (action is passing over to an object)
The intransitive verb refers to that action that does not pass over to an object but expresses a state.
They go to school, (infinitive verb cannot be changed)
A participle is that form of the verb which is partly a verb and partly an adjective. Participles qualify nouns or pronouns. Present Participle ends in -ing and shows an ongoing action. Whereas Past Participle ends in -ed, -d. -t, -en, or -n and shows a completed action.
- Hearing the baby’s cries, the mother woke up.
Being dissatisfied, he resigned from his position.
Working all day, I was fatigued. (Present Participle)
2. Driven by hunger, he stole a piece of bread.
Lessons learned easily are soon forgotten.
Encouraged by his wife, he preserved. (Past Participle)
The participles, which qualify adjectives in front of a noun, are called “Participle Adjectives’.
- A burnt child dreads the fire.
- He played a losing match.
- A rolling stone gathers no moss.
By adding ‘to’ to the first form of a verb, the infinitive is made; as
- To err is human, to forgive divine,
- The apple is fit to eat.
Though the word ‘to’ is frequently used with an infinitive yet it is not an essential part or sign of it. We use the infinitive without ‘to’ after certain verbs:
(bid, let, make, dare, need, hear, see, will, shall, would, should, may, might, can, could. must, had better, had rather, would rather, sooner than, rather than)
- Let us go outside.
- Bid me go there.
- Make her do.
- Hina should speak the truth.
- You shall pay the bill.
- He had better ask permission.
A ‘Gerund’ is that form of the verb, which ends in (-ing) and has the force of a Noun and a Verb. It is also called ‘Verbal Noun’. As both the Gerund and Present Participle end in (-ing), so they must be distinguished carefully.
A Gerund being a Verbal-noun may be used as:
- The subject of a verb; as Playing card is not allowed here.
- An object of a transitive verb; as I like reading poetry.
- The object of a preposition; as He is fond of hunting
- Complement of a verb; as Seeing is believing.
An adverb is a word that qualifies the meaning of a verb an adjective or another adverb
She was walking slowly ( qualifying verb)
You are a very clever boy. ( qualifying adjective)
She was walking quite slowly. ( qualifying another adverb)
Kind of adverb:
Adverbs may be divided into the following classes according to their meaning.
Adverb of time:
These adverbs show that when something had happened.
These words are before, never, now, lately, late, ago, soon, daily, already, yesterday, today, afterward, tomorrow, once, presently, frequently, after, since, formerly, etc
When will you learn to do it?
The book was not available then.
Adverb of manner:
They show how and in what manner. Something has happened.
These words are bad, well, wrongly, correctly, nearly, roundly, quickly, tightly, loudly, happily, exactly, cleverly, angrily, furiously, etc
He was walking slowly.
He was reading clearly.
Adverb of place:
They show that where something had happened.
These words are in, up, out, here, there, above, outside, inside, everywhere, below, near, away, etc
They followed her everywhere
Where are you going?
Adverb of frequency:
They show that how often something has happened.
These words are often, seldom, once, twice, again, frequently, never, always, sometimes, etc
I seldom go to school
He often commits mistakes
Adverb of degree:
They show to what degree or to what extent something has happened.
These words are more, quite, fully, partly, much, little, almost, enough, wholly, somewhat, less, so, too, very, altogether, rather, almost, etc
She is so glad
I am very sad
Adverb of reason or cause:
They elaborate the reason for doing or not doing some work
These words are why, according, therefore, hence, so, likewise, these, etc
This is why. It does so happen
She was failed therefore she left the school.
Adverb of affirmation or negation:
They show the affirmation or negation of any work.
These words are certain, surely, undoubtedly, possibly, no, not, yes, ever, never, probably, etc
Surely he is mistaken
Yes. I will do it
A preposition is a word that is placed before a noun or a pronoun to show in what selection the person or thing indicated by it stands regarding something else.
- He is fond of tea.
- He is ashamed of his behavior.
- He was angry with me.
- She was absent from the class.
- Let us hope for the best.
Other definitions of preposition:
. “The prepositions are the spice of good conversation and correct idiomatic writing.” John O’ London
“A word governing a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element.”
7 The Conjunction
A conjunction is a word, which is used merely to join together sentences and sometimes words.
- She is a doctor and her brother is an engineer.
- He is poor but honest.
- Two and two make four.
- There are two kinds of conjunction :
- Coordinating conjunctions
- Sub-ordinating conjunction
A coordinating conjunction joins together clauses of equal rank. Any of the co-ordinating There are two kinds of conjunction: Co-ordinating conjunctions are of four kinds: conjunction may be replaced by a colon, semi-colon, or comma, except or, nor, etc.
Cor-ordinating conjunctions are of four kinds:
(a) Copulative or Cummulative Conjunctions:
These conjunctions merely add one statement to another. These words are no less-than, as well as, too, and, both, not only- but also, both – and, etc.
He is not only a brother to me but also a friend.
They both love and respect their teacher.
(b) Adversative Conjunctions:
They express opposition as the contrast between two statements. These words are: but, yet, still, only, while, whereas, nevertheless, however, etc.
He was angry, still, he kept quiet.
She is sick, yet she is working hard.
I would come, only that I am engaged.
(c) Disjunctive or Alternative Conjunctions:
They express a choice between two alternatives. These words are: or, either-or, neither-nor, else, otherwise, etc.
Either he is a fool or a knave.
- Neither she nor her mother is present in the house.
- Walk quickly, else you will not overtake him.
(d) Illative Conjunctions:
They express an inference. These words are: as, thus, therefore, so, hence, because, for, etc.
He deserved to succeed, for he worked hard.
She was sick, so she did not come to see me.
He got married to Sana because he loved her very much.
Sub-ordinating conjunction joins a clause to another on which it depends for its full i. meaning.
Sub-ordinating conjunctions may be classified according to their meaning; as
Do not go before she comes.
I shall stay here till he returns.
Cause or Reason:
They ran away because they were afraid.
As she is not here, I shall speak to you.
- He saved so much money so that his sons should lead a prosperous me.
- He held my hand lest I should fall.
Result or Consequence:
She was so nervous that she could not sing well.
He is tired enough that he cannot stand.
You will pass if you work hard.
I shall disagree unless he is compelled.
I am taller than you.
He likes me better than you.
Though he is rich, yet he is not arrogant.
A book is a book, although there’s nothing in it.
An interjection is a word, which is used to express sudden feelings or emotions.
Interjections may express:
Hurrah! We have won the game.
- Aha! It’s raining.
Alas! We have lost the match.
- Oh! Amina has lost her purse.
- How high this building is!
Ha! Have you done it?
Well done! Boys you have got it.
- Bravo! You did well.
Hi! How are you?
- Hello! Are you there?
Hold on! Till he finishes.
- Hush! Don’t make a noise.
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